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Sir Thomas Mitchell’s ‘Map of the Nineteen Counties’ was compiled from 900 surveys, and engraved mostly on copper by himself and John Carmichael, costing Mitchell about £1200. “Nearly computed” in Nov. 1833, a copy of the map was sent to the Colonial Secretary Alexander Macleay on 24th Feb. 1834, and another submitted to Lord Stanley on 5th May 1834.
By 1829 these 19 counties defined the limits of settlement and ranged from Batemans Bay in the South to Kempsey in the North and Wellington in the West. However, 'squatters’ established 'runs’ for their livestock beyond those counties and by 1836 grazing licences were established in an attempt to manage these areas.