On this day, 3rd June 1790, The Lady Juliana is the first ship of the Second Fleet to arrive in Sydney Cove.
The Second Fleet consisted of six ships - four transport ships and two storeships arrived in Sydney Cove in 1790. Three of the transport ships carried mostly male convicts and the other transport ship, The Lady Juliana, only carried women. The Lady Juliana was the first all-female transport ship and the female population of Sydney more than doubled when it arrived.
The convicts on all the ships were mistreated, rations were poor and sickness rife. Of the approximate 1250 male convicts, over 25% died en route to NSW (in comparison to just 2.8% of those on the First Fleet) and many more died within a year of reaching Sydney (Flynn 2001). Almost half of the convicts who arrived in Sydney required immediate hospitalisation and about 80 died within three weeks of arrival.
We have a list of resources for Second Fleet convicts on our Research Guide: Convicts Bound for Australia