April 29 Captain James Cook in the Endeavour enters Botany Bay.
18 January Captain Arthur Phillip enters Botany Bay.
Pemulwuy spears Governor Phillip’s gamekeeper and Phillip orders the first punitive expedition. Pemulwuy leads a guerrilla campaign.
Colonists, with the help of Aboriginal people, cross the Blue Mountains.
Start of the Black Wars in Tasmania.
John Batman attempts to make a ‘treaty’ with Aboriginal people for Port Phillip Bay. It is later declared to be invalid as only the government can make treaties with Aboriginal people.
On 10 June, 28 Aboriginal people are killed in the Myall Creek Massacre.
Governor Bourke of NSW orders the establishment of the Native Police, in the Port Phillip district.
The Aboriginal Protection Board is established in NSW.
Western Australian Aborigines Protection Act establishes a Protection Board; the Victorian Aborigines Protection Act changes the definition of ‘Aboriginal person’ to exclude ‘half castes’ and nearly half the residents of reserves have to leave their homes.
Jandamarra declares war on European invaders in the West Kimberley and prevents settlement for six years.
The Queensland Aboriginal’s Protection and Restriction of Sale of Opium Act establishes reserves and provides for the appointment of protectors.
Australian becomes a federation of six self-governing colonies.
NSW introduces the Aborigines Act, making it illegal for ‘half-castes’ to live on reserves. In 1915 and 1918 amendments to the Act give the NSW Aborigines Protection Board greater powers to remove children for training as domestic servants.
Thirty-two Aboriginal people are killed in the Conniston Massacre in the Northern Territory.
On 26 January, the Aboriginal Progressive Association declares a Day of Mourning. A protest occurs outside Australia Hall in Sydney.
Aboriginal pastoral workers in the Port Hedland, Western Australia, strike for better pay. The following year, Aboriginal pastoral workers in the Pilbara, Western Australia, also strike.
Atomic tests are conducted on Maralinga lands, South Australia.
The Commonwealth Electoral Act is amended to give the vote to all Aboriginal people.
The Yirrkala bark petition against mining on the Gove Peninsula is drawn up by the senior men of the affected clans.
Aboriginal workers at Wave Hill walk-off in protest against intolerable conditions and poor wages.
The Commonwealth Referendum passes.
The Commonwealth Office of Aboriginal Affairs is established.
Aborigines Welfare Board in NSW is abolished.
The ‘Aboriginal Embassy’ is pitched outside Parliament House in Canberra, calling for land rights; the community controlled Aboriginal Medical Service is set up in Redfern.
Racial Discrimination Act (Cth) comes into force.
Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act (Cth) is passed.
Uluru is handed back to the traditional owners.
The Barunga Statement is presented to the federal government; large numbers of Aboriginal people protest in Sydney on the bicentenary of the establishment of the first colony.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) is established.
The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody hands down its Report and Recommendations.
On 1 January, the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) becomes law.
The 700-page report of the ‘Bringing them Home’ report on Indigenous children removed from their families is tabled in Federal Parliament.
The Native Title Amendment Act is passed.
ATSIC is abolished.
The Northern Territory Emergency Response is rolled out with bipartisan support.
On 13 February, at Parliament House, Canberra, Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd apologises to the Stolen Generations. (Transcript of speech)