This teacher's guide accompanies My Weekend with Pop, a short illustrated bilingual story. You and your students can read the story in English and listen to it in several NSW Aboriginal languages: Dharawal, Gumbaynggirr, Gamilaraay, Paakantyi and Wiradjuri. In recent decades people in these communities have been involved in reviving their languages. They have worked with linguists to reconstruct and re-learn their languages, using a combination of archival/historical materials and orally-held community knowledge of languages. Following detrimental treatment from colonial through to recent decades, policies for Aboriginal languages have only recently become supportive. The NSW State Library project is part of a fabric of support now available through several government and non-government organisations, working alongside communities to strengthen their languages.
Schools have begun to play a key role in supporting local communities who want their languages to be taught in schools. An Aboriginal languages syllabus has been available in NSW since 2003. Aboriginal communities, linguists and schools have worked together to develop teaching programs for local languages. As clearly stated at the front of the syllabus, it can only be implemented in collaboration with communities, ensuring local Aboriginal community control of the development and delivery of the school program. Implementation of the Aboriginal languages syllabus to date has been highly successful. In effective school-community partnerships, the programs have demonstrated that learning Aboriginal languages is important for both Aboriginal languages is important for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students.
The people who have recorded My Weekend with Pop want to share their languages with you and your students. My Weekend with Pop is a taster. It provides an opportunity for students to listen to, read and write in Aboriginal languages. However, teachers and students will only be able to speak in an Aboriginal language if they have a speaker of that language and from that community working closely with them.
The teaching and learning sequence below has been approved by the people who recorded My Weekend with Pop in their languages. The activities are designed for Stage 2, and teachers could adjust them for Stage 1 or Stage 3 learners. Reading the English sentences in this bilingual story is well within the capabilities of Stage 2 learners. The more cognitively challenging aspects for the students will be learning about the revitalisation of Aboriginal languages and cultures. This will require them to develop interpretive skills and their ability to express insights into people's experiences represented in the text and images in the story.
The My Weekend with Pop story facilitates integration of key learning areas (KLAs). Each activity in the teaching sequence below is matched to learning outcomes and content in relevant NSW syllabuses, especially History, English and Creative Arts. Alternatively a teacher could select particular activities from the ones below, and embed them in their own existing KLA-specific units of work, as a way of including Aboriginal perspectives. The resources list at the end of this guide includes print and multi-media materials that are suitable for teachers of Early Stage 1 through to Stage 6.
Activity notes for Teachers
Class discussion before introducing the My Weekend with Pop story:
- What is an Acknowledgement of Country?
- What is a Welcome to Country?
- Who can give an Acknowledgement?
- Who can give a Welcome?
- Why are Acknowledgements and Welcomes important?
You and your school might already have a positive relationship with the local community and knowedlge of many details about the local country. On the other hand this might be an area that your school needs to work on. If Acknowledgements/Welcomes are already a regular part of proceedings in your school, you could skip straight to the next activity. Or you could work with your class to research and write your own original andunique Acknowledgement/Welcome speech.
As a class, begin a research project to investigate questions such as:
- Where is our school located?
- Which Aboriginal country are we living and learning on?
- What are some of the unique geographical features of this Aboriginal country?
- Are there special Aboriginal places in this area?
- Which Aboriginal language belongs here?
- Are Aboriginal written down?
- Are there any Aboriginal placenames in our area?
- Which Aboriginal organisations are in our area?
- What can we respectfully find out about Aboriginal people in our local area?
Build up a wall display of information. Each child contributes an image and a sentence to demonstrate something they have learned as part of the class research project. The class could organise and display information on the wall according to themes that anticipate the My Weekend with Pop story, e.g. things we have learned about language, country and culture.
Aboriginal children in the class may be able to contribue deeper information from their own knowledge and experience, if they feel comfortable doing so. This should be encouraged sensitively, with the teacher being guided by adults who know the children well, e.g. parents, caregivers, an Aboriginal Education Officer or Aboriginal Education Consultant from your school's regional/diocesan office.
With the new knowledge compiled in the wall display, the class can now create an Acknowledgement which is well-informed and unique, rather than standard or formulaic. The jointly constructed Acknowledgement can be added to form the centre-piece of the class display. (Joint/collaborative construction. Board of Studies, 2010, Dictionary of Classroom Strategies K-6, p23).
For information for the above activities, teachers can refer to various sources, e.g.:
- Brochures and advice about Acknowledgement of Country and Welcome to Country are available online from the NSW Department of Education and Museums and Galleries NSW.
- Search the ABC splash page and/or YouTube for clips showing Acknowledgements and Welcomes to Country in various places and languages.
- Contact the local or regional Aboriginal Education Consultative Group closest to your school for adivce.
- Explore maps such as the map of Indigenous Australia published by AIATSIS (the Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies in Canberra), also available in an interactive format through ABC online.
- Explore publishers which specialise in Aboriginal languages, e.g. Magalaba books, Batchelor press, Aboriginal Studies Press, IAD Press.
- Information about local Aboriginal people and knowledge can often be found in the Culture & Heritage section of the NSW Parks and Wildlife website and on your Local Government/Shire Council website.
- Where possible the teacher could invite a guest speaker from a local Aboriginal community organisation, or take the students there for an excursion. To do this well, the teacher needs to have an established relationship with the guest speaker. The topics for the talk/visit need to be negotiated so that the teacher and guest speaker are comfortable with the teaching and learning plan for the talk/visit. Teachers are advised to follow the Board of Studies (2008) Working with Aboriginal Communities Guide to Community Consultation and Protocols which is available online.
Introduce the State Library of NSW website. Background information for teachers and topics for class discussion:
- Before invasion and colonisation, Aboriginal languages were orally transmitted and had a rich oral tradition. Those traditions continue. Aboriginal languages also now have writing systems. Most use the same writing system as English, i.e. the Roman alphabet.
- In the early days of colonisation, it was mostly non-Aboriginal people who wrote down Aboriginal languages. These days Aboriginal people themselves are writing and publishing in their own languages.
- In recent decades people in Aboriginal communities have been involved in reviving their languages. They have worked with linguists to reconstruct and re-learn their languages, using a combination of archival/historical materials and community-held language knowledge which has survived orally.
- Prepare a selection of short examples to enable the class to compare and contrast:
- archival/historical records made by non-Aboriginal people who wrote down languages provided orally by speakers. Class views examples of archival/historical records for Dharawal, Gumbaynggirr, Gamilaraay, Paakantyi or Wiradjuri, available on the NSW State Library Rediscovering Indigenous Languages website.
- present day examples of text in Aboriginal languages made by people from those communities. Teachers might access current publications for Dharawal, Gumbaynggirr, Gamilaraay, Paakantyi or Wiradjuri in the resource list at the end of this Guide. Alternatively, teachers can just show the My Weekend with Pop story.
- Possible discussion questions to compare and contrast (1) and (2): Who do you think wrote the old records of the languages? Who spoke the words and who wrote them down? WHy do you think they wanted them to written down? When do you think they were written?
Introduce My Weekend with Pop on the State Library of NSW website:
- Show that the website includes a story that has been recorded and written in Dharawal, Gumbaynggirr, Gamilaraay, Pakantyi and Wiradjuri. The website has a location map for each recording.
- Which one is closest to our school? Which one is the furthest from our school?
Introduce the story My Weekend with Pop in English (Guided reading. Board of Studies, 2010, Dictionary of Classroom Strategies K-6, p15-16).
- Pre-reading discussion:
- What kinds of things do you do with your grandparents? Which places fo you go to together?
- Tell the class the story is about an Aboriginal grandfather and grandchild, who do special things together on Country.
- Post-reading discussion:
- How are the characters in the story connected to Country? What activities do they do together?
- In what ways is your time with your grandparents similar to the Aboriginal child in this story?
- In what ways is your time with your grandparents different from the child in this story?
Introduce the story My Weekend with Pop in an Aboriginal language.
- Listen to the story in an Aboriginal language, e.g. you could select the language of the land on which your school is located or the nearest one or the one that Aboriginal students in your class identify with.
- Listen to the recording for each page a few times.
- Try to follo each written sentence as you listen.
- Can ou hear/pickout a key word in each sentence and point to it?
- Have you ever heard an Aboriginal language before? How would you describe this experience?
Place the images from the story out of order, e.g. projected on an interactive whiteboard. Class drags each page into the correct sequence, and retells the story in English. (Retelling. Board of Studies, 2010, Dictionary of Classroom Strategies K-6, p36).
Each student brings a photo of him/herself with a grandparent or grandparents. Compose a text to accompany the photo, which captures similarities and differences and makes connections between their own experiences and those of the Aboriginal grandparent and grandchild in My Weekend with Pop.
The Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus recommends students be: exposed to a wide range of artists, artworks and artistic practices in Australian cultures. These include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people where the visual arts are integral to the expression of cultural identity and contemporary interpretations of experience.
The illustrations for the My Weekend with Pop story were created by a well-known Aboriginal artist and designer, Lucy Simpson. A lot of images and information about her and her workd is availabe on the internet. Individually, or as a class, students could talk about and then write a short biography of Lucy Simpson, including information and images such as:
- examples of the art and design work
- things she makes and creates
- materials she uses
- techniques she uses
- places her work has been exhibited
- her Aboriginal language and country
- concepts from her culture that are represented in her art and design work
- items from her country that are represented in her art and design work
Look at the images created by Lucy Simpson for the My Weekend with Pop story:
- How has she created them?
- What materials had she used?
- What techniques has she used?
- How would you describe the images?
- What kind of feelings do they give you?
- What kind of ideas do they communicate?
- Aboriginal cultures are living. They are both past and present, both traditional and continuing. How does the artist show us this through her images?
NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum
- HT2-2 describes and explains how significant individuals, groups and events contributed to changes in the local community over time.
Analysis and use of sources
- Locate relevant information from sources provided
- Pose a range of questions about the past
Cause and effect
- Reasons for a particular historical development
Empathetic and understanding
- How and why people in the past may have lived and behaved differently from today
- The importance and meaning of national commemorations and celebrations, and importance of a person or event
LEARNING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures
- Information and communication technology capability
- Intercultural understanding
- Thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts EN2-10C
- Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar and different from their own EN2-11D
Respond to and compose texts
- Respond to a range of texts, e.g. through role-play or drama, for pleasure or enjoyment, and express thoughtful conclusions about those texts
Understand and apply knowledge of language forms and features
- Identify and compare the differences between texts from a range of cultures, languages and times
- Make connections between students' and those of characters and events represented in texts
Respond to and compose texts
- Discuss aspects of literature from a range of cultures to explore more common experiences and ideas as well as recognising difference
CONTEXT AND TEXT REQUIREMENTS
In each year of Stage 2 students must study examples of:
- spoken texts
- print texts
- visual texts
- media, multimedia and digital texts
Across the stage, the selection must give student experience of:
- a widely defined Australian literature, including texts that give insights into Aboriginal experiences in Australia
- texts about intercultural experiences
- an appropriate range of digital texts, including film, media and multimedia
LEARNING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM
Cross curriculum priorities
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and culture
- creative and critical thinking
- intercultural understanding
Appreciating and Making are the two main aspects of Visual Arts in the Creative Arts K-6 Syllabus.
VAS2.4 Identifies connections between subject matter in artworks and what they refer to, and appreciates the use of particular techniques.
VAS 2.1 Represents the qualities of experiences and things that are interesting or beautiful by choosing among aspects of subject matter.
- interpret the meaning of artworks by taking into account relationships between the artwork, the world and the artist
- select and explore different aspects of subject matter in particular ways in their making of artworks
- use particular artistic traditions guided by the teacher's instruction in artmaking and experiment with techniques, tools and graphic schema
- how pictures and other artworks invite how artists, including themselves, can interpret the world in particular ways in their artmaking
- traditions associated with different form such as drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking and digital works, interpretation from audiences.
The following list of resources is for background reading for teachers. Some of the resources will be suitable for your students too, e.g. links to video clips of children across NSW who are learning Aboriginal languages. The resources are grouped according to languages represented on the NSW State Library My Weekend With Pop website, and the list starts with some maps and general information about keeping languages strong throughout Australia. Some of the resources in the list are books which may only be available through specialised libraries. Some are more easily accessible. Teachers do not need to read all of these books to be able to implement the Stage 2 teaching and learning activities suggested in this guide.
Maps and keeping languages strong
ABC online. Indigenous languages map. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/indigenous/map/
ABC Radio National. (2009). Holding Our Tongues website has information about several languages across the continent and includes some audio recordings of speakers and songs. Available http://www.abc.net.au/rn/legacy/features/holdingourtongues/
ABC Splash. Indigenous resources page. http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/topic/494038/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-histories-and-cultures
Nathan, David (Ed). (updated 2017). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages of Australia virtual library. Available http://www.dnathan.com/VL/
Museums and Galleries NSW. Aboriginal languages map of Australia. Available https://mgnsw.org.au/sector/aboriginal/aboriginal-language-map/
ABC Open. (2016). A conversation in Bundjalung. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/139619
ABC Open. (2016). Aboriginal language detectives. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/138717
ABC Open. (2014). Sharing Bundjalung mother tongue. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/74602
ABC Open. (2014). Sharing Bundjalaung language through photographs. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/74677
Sharpe, Margaret. (2001). An introduction to the Yugambeh-Bundjalung language and its dialects. An introduction to the Yugambeh-Bundjalung language and its dialects. Revised (3rd) edition with chapters by Marjorie Oaks, Terry Crowley and Jill Fraser-Knowles. Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
Sharpe, Margaret. (2005). Grammar and texts of the Yugambeh-Bundjalung dialect chain in Eastern Australia (Vol. 370). Munich, Germany: Lincom.
Sharpe, Margaret. (2002). Dictionary of coastal Bundjalung including Bundjalung, Wiyabal, Minyangbal and Ngahnduwal: Unpublished manuscript.
Sharpe, Margaret. (1995). Dictionary of Western Bundjalung, including, Gidhabal and Tabulam Bundjalung. Armidale: M. Sharpe.
Dharawal and Dhurga
ABC Open. (2014). Let's rejoice in Dharawal. Tahlia King sings the National Anthem in Dharawal. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/77790 or https://vimeo.com/104576601
ABC Open. (2014). Reclaiming the Dhurga language. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/94548
Besold, Jutta. (2013). Language Recovery of the New South Wales South Coast Aboriginal Languages. (PhD), Australian National University.
Eades, Diana. (1976). The Dharawal and Dhurga languages of the New South Wales South Coast. Canberra: Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
NITV (National Indigenous Television). (2017). Around The Campfire, Series 3 Episode 13. Dhurga Language With Kerry Boyenga and Trish Ellis. Available http://www.sbs.com.au/nitv/video/554997315553/Around-The-Campfire-S3-Ep13-Dhurga-Language-With-K
Gamilaraay and Yuwaalaraay
ABC Open. (2015). Near or far, a poem by A Gamilaraay woman, Suellyn Tighe, for her grandchildren. You can view it in English https://open.abc.net.au/explore/93771 and in Gamilaraay https://vimeo.com/126769095
ABC Open. (2015). Give me five in Gamilaraay. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/112156
ABC Open. (2015). Count to ten in Gomeroi. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/92371
ABC Open. (2015). Master of ceremonies, Len Waters. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/108145
ABC Splash. (2015). Yaama Ghubhii: Indigenous Connect Song. http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/media/2394462/yaama-ghubhii-indigenous-connect-song
ABC Open and First Languages Australia. Language legends series: Kate Munro. https://gambay.com.au/profiles/89
Chandler, Karen, & Giacon, John. (2006). Dhiirrala Gamilaraay! Teach Gamilaraay: A resource book for teachers of Gamilaraay. Armidale, NSW: Yuwaalaraay Language Program.
Giacon, John. (2002). Gamilaraay, Yuwaalaraay, guwaaldanha ngiyani: We are speaking Gamilaraay and Yuwaalaraay. Tamworth, NSW: Coolabah Publishing.
Giacon, John. (2003). Yugal: Gamilaraay & Yuwaalaraay songs. Tamworth, NSW: Coolabah Publishing.
Giacon, John. (2006). Gaay garay dhadhin: Gamilaraay & Yuwaalaraay picture dictionary. Alice Springs, NT: Institute for Aboriginal Development Press.
Giacon, John & Betts, Marianne. (1999). Yaama maliyaa. An Aboriginal languages textbook. Walgett, NSW: Walgett High School, Yuwaalaraay Gamilaraay Program.
Giacon, John, & Nathan, David. (2009). Gayarragi winangali (find and hear): An interactive multimedia resource for Gamilaraay and Yuwaalaraay [CD-ROM]: Catholic Schools Office, Armidale, NSW & The Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project. Available http://lah.soas.ac.uk/projects/gw/
Ma Gamilaraay. (2015). Gamilaraay dictionary app. Available https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/ma-gamilaraay/id935546616?mt=8
Yuwaalaraay gaay Gamilaraay garay website http://yuwaalaraay.org/
ABC Coffs Coast. (2013). Gumbaynggirr in song. Gary Williams and Dallas Walker singing the song Baabaga Birruganba Bularri http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2013/11/27/3899985.htm
ABC Coffs Coast. (2011). Gumbaynggirr language, with Fiona Poole and Gary Williams. http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2010/07/02/2943206.htm
ABC Open. (2015). Plus 20: Gumbaynggirr Language Teacher Michael Jarrett https://open.abc.net.au/explore/112354
ABC Open and First Languages Australia. Language legends series: Michael Jarrett. https://gambay.com.au/profiles/92
ABC Open and First Languages Australia. Language legends series: Virginia Jarrett. https://gambay.com.au/profiles/93
Long, Julie. (2007). Barriyala: Let’s Work – Gumbaynggirr language student workbook 1, 2, 3. Nambucca Heads, NSW: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Mayalambala teaching resource http://www.muurrbay.org.au/muurrbay-resources/courses/
Morelli, Steve. (2015). Gumbaynggir dictionary and learner's grammar. Bijaarr jandaygam, ngawa gugaarrigam. Nambucca Heads, NSW: Muurrbay Aboriginal Language and Culture Co-operative.
Muurrbay Aboriginal language and culture co-operative http://www.muurrbay.org.au/.
NITV (National Indigenous Television). (2015). Indigenous rangers revitalise language and culture. http://www.sbs.com.au/nitv/nitv-news/article/2015/09/23/indigenous-rangers-revitalise-language-and-culture
Senator Aden Ridgeway’s speech in parliament in 2009 in Gumbaynggirr language http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/language-is-power-let-us-have-ours-20091125-jrsb.html
SBS TV, Custodians program, Season 1, Episode 14, Nambucca Heads, Gumbaynggirr Country (5mins 54 secs) http://www.sbs.com.au/ondemand/video/353160771753/custodians-gumbaynggirr-nambucca-heads
Butcher Murray, Kayleen Kirwin, Robert Lindsay, Wilcannia Central School and Board of Studies NSW. (2009). Paakantyi teaching and learning samples. Available https://ab-ed.bostes.nsw.edu.au/go/aboriginal-languages/learning/lower-darling/teaching-learning
Butcher, Murray & Wilcannia Central School. (2011). Kilampa wura Kaani. Galah and bearded dragon. A Paakantyi story. Available https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbc_b2S_3ws and https://wn.com/kilampa_wura_kaani__a_paakantyi_story
Butcher, Murray, Wilcannia Community, and Sharing Stories. (2017). The moon and the gecko. Available http://www.pearsonplaces.com.au/Places/Primary_Places/Indigenous_Place.aspx
Butcher, Murray and Faith Baisden. (2012). Picture books in Paakantyi and English. Available http://www.binabar.com/paakantyi-and-english-books-launched-in-wilcannia-and-menindee/
Kirwin, Kayleen. (2012). Nhiki manhu. Making Johnny Cakes in Paakantyi. Available https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wvIzQPZiGE
Kirwin, Kayleen. (2013). Teaching Paakantyi at Meninindee Cenral School. Availbale https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LDvcvVZswCQ
Paul, Margaret & ABC radio. (2013). Learning Paakantyi with Isobel Bennett. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-NwpXm_T0gY
Hercus, Luise. (1982). The Bāgandji language. Pacific Linguistics Series B, No. 67. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.
Hercus, Luise. (1993). Paakantyi dictionary. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.
Hercus, Luise. (1999). Paakantyi. In W. McGregor & N. Thieberger (Eds.), Macquarie Aboriginal words: a dictionary of words from Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages (pp. 41-60). North Ryde, NSW: Macquarie Library.
Hercus, Luise, & Nathan, David. (2002). Paakantyi [CD-ROM of texts, stories, songs, grammar, dictionary, games]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies & Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.
ABC Open. (2012). Our Mother Tongue: Wiradjuri. https://open.abc.net.au/explore/22207
ABC Open and First Languages Australia. Language legends series: Geoff Anderson. https://gambay.com.au/profiles/21
ABC Open and First Languages Australia. Language legends series: Lionel Lovett. https://gambay.com.au/profiles/24
ABC Open and First Languages Australia. Language legends series: Diane McNaboe. https://languagesmap.com/profiles/120
Anderson, Geoff; Lovett, Lionel; Towney, Tiyana; and the Parkes Wiradjuri Language group. I am my Elders' blood. Song arrangement and mixing: Sunfield Records. (2015). https://soundcloud.com/ub-ubbo-exchange/i-am-my-elders-blood
Bundyi cultural tours, cultural awareness and school programs in Wiradjuri country http://www.bundyiculture.com.au/
Grant, Stan, & Rudder, John. (2001). Learning Wiradjuri book 1 (place and direction) & book 2 (about actions) [with audio CD]. Canberra: Restoration House.
Grant, Stan, & Rudder, John. (2001). Wiradjuri language – how it works. Canberra: Restoration House.
Grant, Stan, & Rudder, John. (2001). Wiradjuri language song book 1 & book 2 [with audio CD]. Canberra: Restoration House.
Grant, Stan, & Rudder, John. (2001). Introducing Wiradjuri sentences. Canberra: Restoration House.
Grant, Stan, & Rudder, John. (2001). Wiradjuri language colouring-in book 2. Canberra: Restoration House.
Grant, Stan, & Rudder, John. (2005). Wiradjuri dictionary (2nd ed.). Canberra: Restoration House.
McNicol, S., & Hosking, D. (1999). Wiradjuri. In W. McGregor & N. Thieberger (Eds.), Macquarie Aboriginal words: a dictionary of words from Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages (pp. 79-99). North Ryde, NSW: Macquarie Library.
Wiradjuri Condobolin Corporation. (2016). Wiradjuri dictionary app. Available http://www.wiradjuricondocorp.com/
Wiradjuri songs and animations: