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Minority miners

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The goldfields attracted diggers from many nations. Germans, Italians, Poles, American, Chinese, Irish, Scottish and English were just some of the nationalities, along with the native born who ventured out of the towns to the goldfields.


Diggers would fly flags from their tents indicating their nationality. The array of flags included the Union Jack, a Scottish thistle, the Fleur-de-lys and the Texas Star. Hotels would fly the flags of the languages that were spoken within. 

The mateship and egalitarian atmosphere felt amongst diggers did not extend to the Chinese diggers.

Chinese miners arrived on the Australian gold fields around 1854. Often referred to in the contemporary literature as celestials (children of the sun), they were viewed by large sections of society with suspicion and racism because of their different language, dress, food and customs.

 

There were around 17,000 Chinese on the goldfields by mid 1855. Labouring together, the Chinese miners would only work the diggings that had already been worked and deserted by Europeans. Yet they were still accused of taking white men’s claims and were often the scapegoats as disgruntled miners blamed their misfortunes on them.

Many of the Chinese miners returned to their families in China, however there were some who stayed, including Quong Tart. He had migrated to Australia, aged nine, with his uncle and moved to the Braidwood goldfields. Quickly assimilating into the Australian way of life, he developed into a fine cricketer and sportsman, a Freemason and local entrepreneur. He became a wealthy tea merchant and restaurateur and was also a highly respected figure, philanthropist and community leader for the Chinese community in New South Wales.

Anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Bendigo in July 1854 and the first of the anti-Chinese immigration legislation was introduced in Victoria. An entry tax was imposed of £10 for each Chinese immigrant arriving in Melbourne. 

Evading the tax by entering via South Australia, Chinese miners travelled inland to the diggings. It was Chinese miners who discovered the rich deposits of gold at Ararat. The Chinese successes at Ararat caused jealousy and anger from the other miners as they were able to claim the best areas on the diggings.

One of the worst anti-Chinese riots occurred at Lambing Flat (now Young) in New South Wales. 

In the winter of 1861 a brass band playing Rule Britannia urged on a few thousand white miners carrying anti-chinese banners who descended upon the Chinese camp. The Chinese miners were attacked, assaulted and their camp set on fire. A small police presence was ineffective in preventing the violence. Almost five hundred were injured in the attack and over one thousand Chinese miners fled from the Lambing Flat goldfield.

The pressure of anti-chinese feelings in Australian society encouraged the NSW government to introduce the Immigration Restriction Act and Regulations in 1861, reducing numbers of Chinese immigration and preparing the way for the first piece of Federal government legislation in 1901: the Immigration Restriction Act.

About this item: 

William A. Sac's Chinese Boarding House in Herbert Street. On the right is the Drapery store of George Coleman and on the left is a Chinese restaurant also owned by Sac. See also Home & away - 39074 where both Chinese stores have changed hands. -- Information supplied by Baldwin & Davis, Research Gulgong (Dec 2006)

William A. Sac's Chinese Boarding House, Gulgong, ca.1875, by AAPC Wet plate negative View collection item detail
Digital ID: 
Home and Away - 38847
Bark huts in Chinatown, Tambaroora, ca.1875, by AAPC Glass plate negative
Digital ID: 
Home and Away - 39667
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Camp Hill Young at time of riot, 1860-61, attributed to Pierre Nuyts Watercolour drawing, DG SV1B/3
Digital ID: 
a928387
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About this item: 

Quong Tart (1850-1903) was a prominent Chinese tea merchant and restauranteur, opening a series of popular teahouses in Sydney between 1881-1898. A Chinese community leader, he was awarded the title of Mandarin of the Fourth rank by China's Emperor Kuang Hsu in 1894 for his efforts towards Chinese-Australian relations. He successfully bridged both worlds and was the first Chinese public figure to be fully accepted by the wider community of NSW. This was a remarkable feat given the anti-Chinese sentiments of the day.

Quong Tart, ca. 1880s by unknown artist, Oil painting
ca. 1881-1889
Digital ID: 
a928022
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Gold diggings, Ararat, c.1855, by Edward Roper
Digital ID: 
a928798
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On Gay, Chinese shopkeeper at Hill End
1870-1875
American & Australasian Photographic Company
View collection item detail
Digital ID: 
a2823541
"Might versus right" by S.T. Gill, c.1862-1863, J.T Doyle's sketches in Australia by John Thomas Doyle & Samuel Thomas Gill
Digital ID: 
a939015
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A Mark of Esteem

Charles Edward De Boos was a noted humorist and journalist who wrote about the mining industry in New South Wales. In 1874 he was appointed a warden and magistrate of the New South Wales goldfields.

In 1881 he was presented with a gold medal from Chinese miners in the Braidwood district who each subscribed a piece of gold. It was presented as a mark of esteem from the Chinese miners. The accompanying newspaper article states that with this 'passport' it would have been possible for him to have travelled all over China without molestation.

About this item: 

'In 1874 [De Boos] was appointed a police magistrate and mining warden...The Chinamen in the Braidwood district subscribed a piece of gold each, from which was designed and presented to him, a Chinese medal. Armed with this "passport" it would have been possible for him to have travelled all over China without molestation.' 

[Medal] Presented as a mark of esteem to C. De Boos, J.P., Gold Fields Warden from Chinese Miners in the district of Braidwood, 1881 View collection item detail
Digital ID: 
a1168001
About this item: 

'In 1874 [De Boos] was appointed a police magistrate and mining warden...The Chinamen in the Braidwood district subscribed a piece of gold each, from which was designed and presented to him, a Chinese medal. Armed with this "passport" it would have been possible for him to have travelled all over China without molestation.'

[Medal] Presented as a mark of esteem to C. De Boos, J.P., Gold Fields Warden from Chinese Miners in the district of Braidwood, 1881 View collection item detail
Digital ID: 
a1168002
About this item: 

'In 1874 [De Boos] was appointed a police magistrate and mining warden...The Chinamen in the Braidwood district subscribed a piece of gold each, from which was designed and presented to him, a Chinese medal. Armed with this "passport" it would have been possible for him to have travelled all over China without molestation.'

[Medal] Presented as a mark of esteem to C. De Boos, J.P., Gold Fields Warden from Chinese Miners in the district of Braidwood, 1881 View collection item detail
Digital ID: 
a1168003
[Medal] Presented as a mark of esteem to C. De Boos, J.P., Gold Fields Warden from Chinese Miners in the district of Braidwood, 1881
Digital ID: 
a1168004
View collection item detail

This story has been developed with the support of the State Library of NSW Foundation.

We would like to acknowledge the generosity of St Barbara Ltd.